Concepts of Justice, Harmony, and Virtue
Being at the center of social life, a person plays the key role in the functioning of society. Interpersonal communication between people lay on the basis of the social processes that are inextricably linked with the features of each separate personality. The versatility of human nature is the crucial precursor for a variety of social phenomena because in the frame of the nation it is named as the culture. For centuries, the philosophers were trying to grasp the depth of the person’s soul in order to find the effective methods of progressive social communication and managing the social processes. The majority of them agreed that any social interaction should certainly consider the everlasting moral principles of the persons, such as justice, harmony, and virtue, to be successful. These principles are an integral part of any national culture and determine the majority of the process in the state, including politics. The paper aims at analyzing the concepts of justice, harmony, and virtue as significant components of social and politic culture based on Confucianism study.
The Confucianism is one of the studies that emphasizes the core place of the person in all processes occur in the world and significance of his or her moral principles for the community where they live. It can be said that this study is the system of ethics in its essence that shows the way of interaction between the individual moral codex of the man and another moral system in the Universe. Thus, the doctrine of Confucianism is the confirmation of this statement. It presents the main elements in the form of “Three Ways: Way of Heaven, Way of Humans and Way of Harmony”. Obviously, that the Way of Heaven in the core concept that concerns to the all transcendental and religion are lying on the basis of human morality. The Way of Humans is the manifestation of the previous way in the human nature, including moral virtues. The way of Harmony shows the interconnection between the will of God and people’s activity.
From the early childhood, parents give their offspring not only the physical skills but transmit them significant information about moral principles of human life. They explain what is good and how it differs from the evil, provide the children with the set of visions and rules that help the child navigate in further social relationships. This complex of concepts is the child’s basis for thinking, analysis and considering each of the processes, making the conclusions about them and adopting of appropriate decisions. Moreover, it creates the behavioral borders that person could not allow to himself go beyond them in any situation. The moral choice people do regard the crucial issues of the human being is represented further as the one of person’s traits of character. Such features society used to call the virtues that may be considered as a manner of behavior having formed under the influence of cultural, family social values and serves as the means for evaluating of person’s morality. In other words, the virtue is a set of humans values (Magagna).
The family’s virtue belongs to the primary virtues according to the Confucian study, because it is the crucial precursor to the peace and appropriate order in society. It rather justified, because the person who could not reach agreement with the dearest people within the family unlikely to be able save the balance and harmony in society. Moreover, Confucian thinker emphasizes the special requirements to the politician regarding the following this virtue claiming that “For those who are ruling class their virtues in family affairs are even more significant for the whole country”.
However, taking into account that overplaying or the weak efforts in applying even the best people’s traits could be evaluated as the negative factor. Thus, there is a necessity to clarify where the border lies between the virtue and flaw. Most likely they are in the middle between two vices. As the example, the situation of danger can be analyzed to show the meaning of this statement. Thus, two extreme points of reaction on danger exist. It is cowardice or foolhardiness. Any of them could not be considered as virtue. However, the courage based on the respecting the danger and absence of fearless. In other words, virtue could be explained as the point in the middle between two extremes level of emotions and actions or balancing (Magagna).
There are also other virtues, such as wisdom, courage temperance, and justice that have great meaning as in the personal human life so in the community affairs. The justice is considered as mother virtue among the others because it the joining factor that keeps the other virtues in harmony concerning each to the others. Thus, this whole justice determines the quality of people’s life, including both materials and nonmaterial. Existing virtues in human character bring the satisfaction from communication with such person but if the virtue is used for the good of the state and the whole society it certainly promotes the common development of the community.
Injustice is considered to be the biggest evil in social communication, including family relations, friendships, professions or politics. Thus, there is no surprise in human striving to justice, as effective cure for this evil. However, people rarely can identify what action is just even in the relation with the dearest people. Thus, what can be said about the common social justice if taking into account the cultural diversity, numerous set of viruses, diverse perspectives of the world? The facts that may be considered as just concerning one group of persons may be completely unjust regarding the others. That is why the concept of justice is partially determined by the variety of environmental factors, among that cultural identity occupies the core place.
Thus, philosophical issues of justice concept belong to the terms people use in numerous perspectives depending on their individual vision of the world. However, in any case it is associated with the correct and relevant feelings of the people, such as fairness and reasonableness that tell about validity.
The justice is a rather measured thing if taking into account that it is the results of correct human thoughts grounded on the virtues or set of moral values (Magagna). Depending on spheres of applying justice could be related as to the duties so to the rights. Confucianism makes accents on the human rights as the basis for evaluating the justice. Such concept is also a bright reflection of the cultural and national environment. Such assessment is rather effective regarding the political process. Thus, Confucian thinkers emphasize the need of governing without any discrimination or manifestations of favoritism are obviously provoked by large social stratification in the East society. Bell claim that the human right is one of the main pillars of liberal democracy that is considered by him as just.
Active applying and exercising of mentioned virtues is the precursor for the harmony of the soul that leads to the harmony and happiness of society. The justice is the best ways and crucial precursor for harmony in the world, including peace and consensus. The question about the essence of harmony appears in this concern. It is needed to reveal the concept of harmony in order to see the final goal of virtues and justice.
If addressing the linguistic, English word, “harmony” means “the state of being in agreement or concord.” It is the crucial essence of the harmony concept that is also interpreted due to the culture and social peculiarities of the nation. Thus, the highest level of promoting, and thus interpretation, has the Asian society, especially China. The harmony is an integral part of its culture that finds its broad representation in different spheres of human being. China is the bright example of the long-term traditions related to the certain order of things, including spiritual and trivial material process. The concept of harmony includes the majority of natural, human and social fundamental principles. Following them, people can reach perfection and balance as in their internal world so in the community they live. Considering the harmony as the highest individual goal, one can see it is also a crucial precursor for cultivating person’s morality, concerning family, governing the nation, stabilization of world processes. Thus, Confucian notionalists consider the harmony as the moral and social ideal.
The harmony belongs to the one of the fundamental concepts of Confucian Philosophy. According to Confucians understanding the harmony is the states of the world when human life and behavior provide the enjoyment and humanity, appropriate order, balance and peace. Such continuous interconnection between spiritual and human, mental and physical, form and matter, traditional and contemporary bring the individuals continuity, security, and eternity.
Thinkers of Confucianism underline key characteristics of the harmony, such as heterogeneity, tension, coordination and cooperation, transformation and growth, renewal. It means that harmony implies the diversity, existing a variety of dispositions that creates tension during interaction one to the other. The conflicts as the result of any tension are predictable in this situation, and it seems to be not complementary to the harmony. However, Confucianists see the harmony as a tool for overcoming the critical situation, not avoiding them. Thus, cooperation is the next significant feature of the harmony concept. It presupposes helping in solving the critique moments and provide further common transformation. Changes, in its turn, promote development and growth each of participants. Moreover, the harmony is not constant stage is got as the final result, in contrary; it is a rather fragile thing. It is the point in the long-term ongoing process and tends to renewal.
Thus, the concept of harmony is also, like any other philosophical concepts, a rather controversial. Each person has his or her personal vision and perception of the harmony as well as virtue and justice.
After all, one can see that all spheres of social life and activity are inextricably linked with the human internal world. People’s feelings and their personal set of values lay on the basis of majority philosophical concepts that are used as the basis for managing society. Thus, these concepts are an integral part of the politics of all times ad cultures. Trying to find out the effective principles of governing that could lead to the harmony in society politicians not once addressed to the concept of justice and virtues and will do it again and again. That is why, this philosophical triangle and the issue of its essence seem to be the everlasting, but not yet investigated completely.
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