Introductory Psychology

Psychology is one of the most complex areas of human activity, which analyzes the nature of the behavioral patterns, thinking processes, and decisions made by every individual. The essence of the psychology reflects the need to assess human nature according to the myriad of psychological approaches in order to understand the triggers of behavioral patterns. It is impossible to find the area of human performance, which does not depend on psychological concepts. The society realized the efficiency of outlining the triggers of thoughts, emotions, and behavioral patterns leading to the formulation of the decisions. It is necessary to have a brief overview of the major psychological concepts along with their advantages and disadvantages that help to see the practical application of different segments of psychology in everyday life. 

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Pros and Cons of Major Concepts in Psychology

Behavioral psychology is the study dedicated to the evaluation of the connection between people’s minds and actions. In the majority of cases, behavioral psychology refers to the behaviorism, which is the major focus of the sociologists and researchers willing to find the reasons of different types of behavior. The main advantage of behavioral psychology lies in the simplicity of quantifying the collected data and analyzing it with the help of statistical tests. However, the disadvantage of behavioral psychology lies in the inability to cure a patient according to his or her psychological background in terms of knowledge about the behavior that comes from external environment. In this way, behavioral psychology can cease the negative influence of the behavior by removing abusive patterns.

Biological psychology is another segment of the psychology in general, which covers the research on the biological changes in human body influenced by psychological conditions and processes. Biological psychology relies on the biochemical assessments and electrophysiology that take place during psychological experiments. The advantage of biological psychology lies in the reliability of measurable experiments, which help to test the diversity of psychological processes. The disadvantage of biological psychology, in its turn, focuses on the inability to consider the unique nature of every human. As a result, it generalizes theories and concepts applicable to all human beings. 

Cognitive psychology focuses on the study of mental processes including memory, attention, perception, language use, thinking, creativity, and problem solving. It is the integrate core of different disciplines within psychology including education, sociology, economics, and other areas of human activity. The main advantage of cognitive psychology lies in its ability to track the thinking process of every individual. As for its disadvantage, cognitive psychology does not consider other factors rather than cognitive processes in the analysis of the individual’s activity. 

Evolutionary psychology is a separate segment of psychology which focuses on the assessment of the psychological structure of human activity from the contemporary evolutionary point of view. Evolutionary psychology works on the establishment of the connection between human behaviors, which represents the evolved adaptation of the individual according to the terms of the surrounding environment. The advantage of this segment focuses on thorough explanations of the emotions and thoughts in the evolutionary process of the humanity. Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the evolutionary psychology emphasizes its limitation, which presents a thought that there is no point in human existence except for functionality. 

Humanistic psychology studies the goal of every individual to satisfy self-actualization needs accompanied by creativity and achievement of personal aspirations. The primary advantage of humanistic psychology is its focus on an individual behavior in every case. This segment of psychology considers the influence of the external and internal factors on the behavior of the individuals based on the creativity triggers. As for its disadvantage, the therapy involving humanistic psychology principles may become irritating for the patient as long as creativity and freedom of thoughts are the key elements in the treatment process. 

The focus on the unconscious triggers and factors of human behavior lie in the core of the psychodynamic approach. The latter aims to understand human activity based on the conscious and unconscious factors playing a major role in shaping the decision-making process. The advantage of the approach is that it analyzes the past of every individual in order to see the influence of the triggers diversity on human behavior, which has a complex character. However, the disadvantage of the approach lies in ignoring the biological background of human actions, which means that the picture of the behavioral triggers is not clear enough for explaining all processes. 

Finally, the socio-cultural psychological approach explains the factors helping to define every human as a personality based on the surrounding environment including social and cultural backgrounds. The advantage of the approach lies in the evaluation of the distinctive features of social values and cultural norms in different communities, which have an impact on the people belonging to those communies. The major disadvantage of the psychological approach is that it focuses on group dynamics defined by the society, which can hardly help in characterizing personal peculiarities of separate individuals. 

Areas of Application of Psychological Concepts

Clinical psychology is one of the major areas, where psychology integrates a myriad of its concepts in order to target the patient’s needs. It is a mixture of theory, science, and clinical knowledge that helps to understand and relieve the psychological aspects of stress leading to the improvement of every patient’s personality. Psychological therapy and thorough assessments formulate the essence of clinical psychology, which integrates its elements in teaching, research, consultation, and program development. Clinical psychology implies behaviorism, psychodynamic approach, cognitive psychology, and psychological approaches towards family therapy. The target audience of the clinical psychology includes both children and adolescents, which explains the need to apply a myriad of approaches in developing the effective treatment strategies. 

Counselling psychology is another area of the application of psychological concepts, which works on the development of treating psychological disorders. It focuses on training and developing appropriate skills, prevention and health strategies, and supervision. The application of counselling psychology covers a precise evaluation of individuals’ interactions based on the influence of the environment. The essence of counselling depends on socio-cultural psychological approach, which explains the behavior of individuals based on the community where they spend the majority of their time. In general, counselling psychology obtains a vast segment of psychology, which finds its application in almost every sphere of everyday life.

Finally, school psychology is another broad area of applying psychological concepts. The target audience of school psychology includes children, teenagers, families, and teachers belonging to the schooling process. School psychologists work on designing the effective developmental programs that meet the needs of the target audience by means of assessment, continuous prevention, and promotion of healthy behavior among students based on their developmental processes. The core of school psychology includes prevention of psychological disorders, which depend on the educational process, relations with peers, family relations, and personal peculiarities. In this way, school psychologists have to apply a myriad of approaches in order to make prevention effective and appropriate according to the factors of external and internal environments influencing students. 

Personal Experience

The evaluation of different psychological concepts helps to make the projection of every element on personal experience. First, it is possible to see the traces of socio-cultural psychology in routine activity. Customs, traditions, and even behavioral patterns depend on the environment of every individual. For example, it is common to wait for Thanksgiving Day and Christmas as long as these are the main family holidays of the year, which every family member expects to celebrate. Another example of socio-cultural psychology refers to the communication patterns of every individual, which develop from early childhood and define the perception of the surrounding world through the prism of human relations. In addition, cognitive psychology takes place in routine activity by defining creativity and thinking processes. For example, it explains the differences in the creative processes applied by individuals and their worldview. In my opinion, it became clear why some people criticize my paintings based on their experience. It happens for the reason of different perceptions of the surrounding world and art in general. It is common to see people at the gallery watching at the same picture with divergent opinions. Finally, evolutionary psychology has a reflection in everyday activity by explaining the desire to fulfill personal needs according to the contemporary level of social development. These needs still align within the hierarchy of basic needs. However, people have already formulated new needs according to the technological development of the digital era.


A brief evaluation of different psychological concepts revealed the areas of psychological influence, which defines the nature of human performance. It became clear that the effectiveness of psychological approaches lies in the formulation of a complex system of assessments and measurements defining the connection between thinking processes and behavioral patterns. Personal experience also supported the presence of psychological concepts in daily life, which define the interactions between people within society.

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