Attachment in Early Childhood
The relationship that people portray in their adulthood has a great connection to the relationship that a child was given by the mother while still a toddler. It is pointed out that this is a special type of relationship that seeks an exchange of care, pleasure, and comfort. It is a natural activity that continues since infancy as the mother tends to be very sensitive to their babies while the babies develop a g safe and comfortable around them. However, there are those parents that do not offer good care to their children and this may lead to deficiencies in their development. It is thus important to explore the various types of attachment styles, the early childhood development in the light of Physical, Cognitive, Social development and Emotional development. It will also be important to review a recent article that relates the type of attachment to the mental capacity in early childhood.
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Types of attachment styles
The mothers have a special relationship with their children that have been termed as an attachment. It is important to note that the nature of attachment varies between individuals and not all mothers are caring and helpful to their children and hence this explains why there are different types of people. This difference in adults is a reflection of the type of attachment they experienced as children. There are three types of attachments styles that include avoidant, anxious and secure.
Secure attachment style
This is the type of attachment that is related to the availability of help and warmness. The child knows that the mother will be available and feels confident and relaxed around her. The mother has the highest level of care in all aspect and encourages the child to be able to express dissatisfaction when uncomfortable especially in presence of strangers. These children feel uncomfortable being around other people while the mother is gone and this may disrupt them even in play. This relationship enables them to relate well with other. They are thus termed as happy people as they have happy marriages in the beliefs that their parents were warm and hence had great marriages as well.
This is a relationship full of inconsistency between the mother and the child. The child is not aware of the mothers reaction since some distress and affection actions go unattended to. This kind of attachment makes the child unsure and hence makes it hard to explore the world around them. In most cases when in distress, the child will move close to the caregiver but at the same time resist their contact. This kind of attachment has adverse effects on the child in their adult life since they will portray withdrawal traits in the relationships. This is the kind of people who mostly flee from relationships.
Avoidant attachment style
Avoidant attachment style involves individuals that are finding it hard to create emotional relations. Children in this kind of attachment rarely cry or show dissatisfaction while the primary caregiver is away from them and instead feel comfortable around strangers. They continue with play with minimal disruption. Parents do not offer comfort to the child and hence they are denied an opportunity to express signs of distress or affection. The mother is cold and has no time for the child. The bonding between the two is weak and the child feels okay and happy being away from the mother. They will not show any distress in a new setting and will be welcoming to strangers.
This is the kind of attachment where the mother is perceived to have plenty of unresolved personal issues. The past affects their mental capacity to have any concentration on their child. Since the mother is the source of security for the infant but does the opposite and become their source of fear, the child develops an incoherent relationship and this may affect the person even in the adult life. Since it is a kind of attachment full of neglect and abuse, the child develops a poor relationship with other people. They show traits of confusion and inconsistency while interacting with others. They are unsure of the world around them and hence develop distrust in other people.
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Early childhood development forms an essential period of childhood. It is at this time when children are undergoing their cognitive, social, emotional and physical development and hence the type of attachment with the parent determines the development. Secure attachment enhances healthy growth while insecure attachment inhibits good growth.
Cognitive development is closely related to the development of the brain in a child and this is the time that the child gets to understand between good and bad. It is upon the parent to make sure that she is warm towards the child in their emotional interaction. It is in these moments of the emotional connection that the mature brain of the mother impacts the developing rights side brain of the child. This means that those activities that are encourage ought to be rewarded while those that are bad needs to be punished. The child notes this and will shy away from doing something that they were punished for. In this case, therefore, those parents that have insecure relation with their child will end up punishing the child all the time hence making them unaware of good or bad. These children will hence develop low self-esteem before their peers and be vulnerable to peer-pressure. On the other hand, children that have grown insecure attachment will be more confident and more dependent on decision making.
Social development and Emotional development
Humans are social beings and therefore children will need to develop on how they interact with others. The way a mother interacts with her child will impact their socialization with others. In the secure attachment, the child will be more comfortable being around their mother and will feel uncomfortable being around strangers. He/she will even show protest to any attempt by a stranger to calm them down. Even while playing, the child will stop when the mother moves away and then resume after they are back. They will run towards the mother upon coming back. They are concerned with the welfare of other children will feel empathy when they see another crying. Those that grow in insecure attachment are mistreated by the mother. They face a period of rejection and unresponsive attention. They will feel comfortable being with strangers as they detach from the mother. When the mother gets out of the room, the child shows no concern and will continue to play as usual and when the mother gets back, he/she looks at her briefly and continues with play. They are aggressive and angry making the other children isolates them.
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The nature of attachment between a child and mother will affect the physical growth of a child. Secure attachment makes the child more comfortable with the mother and will thus have more freedom to explore the environment. At this age the child is curious about the environment and will, therefore, want to know more about the surround thus exercising his/her limbs more often in insecure attachment, the child is afraid to move about due to mothers mobility restriction that makes the child less adventurous and thus making the child have a slower growth. In some cases, the children experiencing insecure attachment develop dwarfism. The children that grow in the secure attachment are more active and intelligent and will more offense participate actively in the field events in school while the other children from an insecure relationship will be less confident and inactive.
Review of a Recent Research article on Attachments as A Way to Maintain the Mental Capacity in Early Childhood
The article Effects of Attachment on Early and Later Developments, has emphasized on the correlation between the type of attachment and the mental capacity that a child will have. In a secure attachment, the child will be more comfortable to explore the environment courtesy of the trust with the caregiver. This offers a child greater competence that enhances independence in decision making. The child will protest the physical contact of strangers while the mother is absent and upon coming back, the child will happily run after the mother to greet her before embarking on his/her play. These children grow to be resilient and are able to resist peer pressure and instead of acting on a stressful situation, they think about them before making an independent decision. The insecure attachment, on the other hand, inhibits the healthy development of the child. The first childhood effect is that the child experiences retarded growth and this translates into intellectual retardation. They also develop low self-esteem. The author points out that the child starts to develop the right side of the brain within the first three months and one of the functions is identifying the attachment function besides the processing of socio-emotional information. It is at these early stages of interaction with the mother that the childs brain is developed and this affects how a child relates to others.. Those from the insecure attachment end up having the low mental capacity and this explains why they more dependent on other and find it difficult to make decisions.
Conclusively, the attachment between the child and the mother is important and hence mothers ought to know the kind of relationship they have with their children. It is crucial to note that the early childhood experiences are the ones that the child carries into adulthood. Secure attachment is the best attachment as it fosters healthy growth while others are deficient in care and support resulting in defects like dwarfism. The cognitive, physical and social and emotional developments are fundamental to the child and hence a good attachment relationship between the mother and the child ought to be good so as to ensure a healthy growth. The article under review is also in support of the fact that secure attachment is the one that leads to positive development while the insecure attachment leads to negativity.