Causes of the Israel and Palestine Conflict


The Israel and Palestine Conflict is the continuous wars that are ongoing between the people of Israel and Palestine. The history of the conflict can be traced from the middle of the 20th Century. The Conflict is still alive up to date and the main phase of the conflict occurred between 1964 and 1993. The main location of the conflict is in the Middle East and mostly in Israel, Lebanon, Gaza and West Bank. The peace process has taken period to end the conflict but the solutions have failed to result to eventual peace agreement.

The causes of the conflict are many and their solutions need well established approaches. The causes of Israel and Palestine Conflict include security, the control of Jerusalem, exclusive recognition, the freedom of movement by the Palestinians, and interest from the culture and religion. The main historical causes of the Israel and Palestine are national movements, the First World War and the violence among the communities in Mandatory Palestine. The conflict has led to casualties and losses estimated to be over 21,000 casualties between the period of 1965 and 2013. The paper identifies and explains the main causes historical causes of Israel and Palestine Conflict.

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National Movements

The national movements that were formed in the late 19th Century are the root cause of the Israel and Palestine Conflict. The movements include Zionism, Palestinian nationalism and Arab nationalism. The issue of Zionism was pertinent in the Conflict. The return to Zion was the greatest aspiration by the Jewish which was agitated by their religion. The Jewish who lived in Europe and part of the Middle East grafted plans of migrating back to Israel. During the planning of immigration, the movement which was named as Zionist was formed and became as political vehicle for Jewish people in 1897.

The Zionist Movement with the support of the Ottoman and British rules sourced for funds which were used to purchase land in some section in Palestine. The Jewish people were encouraged to move to the land purchased.

After the settlement of the Jewish, violent incidents erupted between Arabs and the new immigrants in Palestine. The first case occurred when an Arab man was accidentally shot dead during a wedding ceremony in 1882. The shooting was done by the Jewish guard and this prompted the Arabs to evade the Jewish residence by destroying properties. Such kind of incidents continued happening in different parts of the Palestine such as Petah Tikva where a Jewish man was attacked and his horse taken away. The Jewish people demanded vacation of the Arabs and the Arabs responded by retaliating.

The Jewish movement was seen as the great threat to the Arabs in the Palestine. The movement was fighting for the rights of Jewish that include the acquisition of land. The issue of land led to eviction of Arabs in their land. The issue of dispossession of land resulted to more tension in the Palestine between the Jewish and Arabs. The Arab leaders were equally not pleased with the action of the Jewish movement and resulted to conflict due to the right of ownership of the land.

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First World War

The First World War and its aftermath played a critical role in causing the conflict. The Treaty that was established between the Ottoman Empire and Germany about removal of Palestine under the Ottoman Empire was strongly opposed by France and Britain. The proposal of removing Palestine to led to alignment of Jewish and Arabs to France, United Kingdom and Russia during the war. The Arabs revolted against the Ottoman rule. In the 1917, there was establishment of the Balfour Declaration which mostly favored the Jewish population in the Palestine. The rights of the Jewish population ware closely catered for but the civil rights of the Arabs were not granted as per their satisfaction.

The policy of Balfour Declaration was a good initiative to the Jewish people and was supported by the Jewish Movement. The support of Jewish Movement became an issue of concern by the Arab leaders as well as Arab population in Palestine. The sad feeling of the Arabs increased the conflict between the Jewish and the Arabs.

The Great Britain was constantly fighting the Ottoman and fortunately in the early 1919, the British managed to defeat Ottoman and Palestine remained under the British administration. Though the Arabs were not supporting the Ottoman, they also opposed the full control of Palestine under the British administration. The British leadership promised more developments to Jewish people in the Palestine. The promises of the Great Britain to Jewish population angered Arabs and led to formation of Arab Nationalist Movement. The Arab Nationalist Movement created a separation of Arabs who are majority in Palestine from the Jewish people. The separation was the real cause of conflict between the Jewish and Arabs.

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Violent communities in Mandatory Palestine

The end of the First World War and Ottoman Empire that collapsed, the Great Britain was granted the mandates for Palestine and other territories comprising of Israel, West Bank, Gaza Strip and Jordan. The endorsement was made by the Balfour Declaration that the Arab population opposed earlier. The British administration fought for unity between the Jewish and Arabs in the regions of Palestine. The equality propelled the growing of Jewish immigration into Palestine. The growing Jewish population led to acquisition of more lands to accommodate them. The land acquisition resulted to replacement of the tenants by the Jewish. This act angered Arabs population because they felt that they were being dispossessed the ownership of their land.

Jewish population was increasing as the population of the Arabs decreasing. The Jewish immigrants were adamant in paying or buying the land from Arabs. The hostility increased and the Arabs could not share anything with the Jewish. The formation of Countrywide Arab Movement enhanced the hostility to a great depth. The leaders of Arab Movement incited the religious protest against the Jewish by claiming that Jewish were building the temple in the Palestine. There were riots against the growing population of Jewish in 1921. The religious tension and other issues have seen the conflict between Israel and Palestine to persist.


The main causes of the Israel and Palestine conflict were identified and explained. The history of the conflict is briefly reviewed and could be traced from the late 19th Century and early 20th century.

The main cause of the conflict is the nationalist movement. The movement led to immigration of Jewish from Europe and other Parts of the Middle East to Palestine. The Jewish population and the movements angered the Arab population which shows the existence of the conflict.

The First World War contributed to the development of the conflict. The actions and policies which were implemented after the War were of course beneficial to Jewish population. The partial acceptance of the policies created ground for the conflict.

The existence of violent communities also played a factor in causing the conflict. The act of belonging to different religions agitated the conflict. The Arab population protested the claim of rebuilding the temple because it belonged to the Jewish. The bi-partisan participation of the colonial powers led to creation of violet communities in the regard of protecting the rights of each group. Most of the conflicts around the world were caused by the colonial powers and their roots are traced from the world wars.

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