Nursing Care Models
Nursing is identified as specific care, protection, and implementation of health means for avoiding injuries and diseases, relief of pain and facilitation of suffering through the treatment process, as well as the protection of personal, community and family health. Generally, it aims at securing and creating conditions which would be beneficial for health. The effective nursing practice is based on several aspects: care, which is always centered on the patient’s welfare, the support between interprofessional units, and knowledge, which is constantly improved by a conscious employee. The paper describes the models of nursing care, their effectiveness in terms of nurse’s practice and communication, as well as positive patient outcome, based on the research.
Models of nursing care are targeted at enhancing the professional competence of nurses, as well as the effectiveness of practice. Care models are closely related to autonomy, responsibility, delegation and accountability, which are the inseparable parts of nurse’s work as the means of assessment of various nursing care models. Moreover, these elements are supposed to be considered to develop an efficient model. Nursing care models deal with the way nurses provide patients with professional care within the health care establishments. Thus, they are identified as the outlines of nursing care delivery.
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Recently, the tendencies in health care delivery have changed significantly. The major cases of nursing care models imply the strategies which deploy staff’s work and resources in the most effective way with the maximum decrease of expenses. These models may be beneficial in making nurses more devoted to their work, as well as more independent and skilled in a decision-making process. The majority of nursing care models include the following goals and aspects: making the interaction between different health care professionals a teamwork, emphasizing the objective groups of health care and making nurses more responsive to patient’s needs. Additionally, they involve more interaction with both patients and their families in terms of treatment planning and delivery, making use of technology a common practice, aiming at quality improvement and job satisfaction in the nursing practice and enhancing the appreciation of nurses’ work in general.
It can be concluded that nursing care model is the practical means of using resources and organizing medical professionals’ work effectively. Thus, the choice of the model is the issue which requires further analysis to precisely define the level of efficiency during care delivery. The objective of the research is to determine the effectiveness of the nursing care model deployed in a particular situation which was observed in the local hospital.
The examined scenario includes the morning monitoring of patients’ vital signs, as well as their general state. The monitoring process included two nurses, one of whom was making injections, and another person measuring pulse and checking respiratory rate. In the course of a routine process, one of the patients asked for a medicament consultation as far as he wanted to have a better insight into the treatment effect. Moreover, the patient demanded the consultation of the anesthesiologist, due to the fact that his operation had not yet been discussed with all the professionals.
After listening to the patient’s needs and demands, a nurse in charge provided him with the basic information about the ways of treatment applied to his case, as well as its possible outcome and positive effect. However, instead of finalizing the given information and persuading the patient in its correctness and relativity, a nurse insisted on the consultation with a doctor appointed to the patient and the requested anesthesiologist. Ultimately, both consultations were provided as soon as possible in order to meet the patient’s needs.
The particular situation is the example of interdisciplinary practice nursing care model. This model is characterized by a high level of cooperation, collaboration, and communication of different medical workers to ensure the treatment and care are productive, correct and reliable. The interprofessional practice is focused on emphasizing the interdisciplinary competency and importance of all medical professions in providing patients with treatment. Importantly, it should be stated that this model implies teamwork, involving representatives from various medical professions and spheres in order to meet the patient’s needs and perceive the occurring health issues from different perspectives. Thus, with the great range of possible patient’s needs, the specific care model copes with the problems from different perspectives.
According to these facts, it is evident that the nursing care model observed in the particular practice setting can be identified as an interprofessional care model. Primarily, a nurse demonstrated her interdisciplinary basic knowledge while giving the patient the answer to the question about treatment measures. This basic knowledge is an essential part of nurse’s job qualities. Moreover, the patient was immediately provided with a consultation of both specialists, which signifies the high level of cooperation between the representatives of various medical occupations and their readiness to provide a patient with necessary answers.
The model exemplified in the section above is one of the most effective in the nursing practice. Anyway, there is the constant need in investigating its effectiveness to check its relevance in the future. Finkelman &Kenner, confirm that this nursing care model implies a range of benefits which will be effective in administering the treatment with the best possible outcome. Primarily, the authors find this model effective in terms of the proper division of work in more complicated health care system. Thus, some kinds of patients require treatment of several medical specialists. The collaborative approach is extremely helpful in providing patients with all kinds of assistance in the shortest period of time. Moreover, the authors believe the model to provide the various kinds of expertise, including pharmacy, social care, nursing, general medical treatment and other aspects. In addition, Finkelman and Kenner find this care model innovative in finding various approaches to the problem, as well as cooperating with other specialists. Consequently, the learning process is increased as the planning of care requires sharing responsibilities, experience, knowledge and cooperation.
Furthermore, Marquis and Huston state that the interdisciplinary nursing care model is beneficial not only for patients but for medical staff as well since it enhances an individual performance, responsibility, and devotion to the job, as well as positive professional self-evaluation and motivation. Moreover, the authors ensure the general sharing of responsibility, as well as nurses having an opportunity to express their opinions about the course of treatment and demonstrating their knowledge. To sum up, the interprofessional care model is believed to be beneficial both for patients and medical staff owing to the high level of cooperation adhered to meet the patient needs.
Despite the general effectiveness of the model represented in the analysis, there is a great variety of nursing care models, which will be appropriate in different cases and settings. For instance, the synergy model of patient care introduced by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses has been widely practiced in different types of nursing care settings. Hardin and Kaplow declare that synergy is effective in case if the skills of nurses meet the patient’s demands and needs. The authors also enumerate the characteristics of the patient which fit into the following model. These entail the ability to remain in the steady state, the complex planning of treatment, including both treatment and cooperation with family members, the susceptibility of a patient to potential stressors which can have a negative impact on their state and a certain level of predictability of the treatment outcome among others.
Curley links these characteristics to the general nursing competencies, involving the general knowledge, the ability to perceive the situation globally and think critically, as well as making independent decisions. Moreover, according to the author, it is evident that these competencies should be grounded with skills in the sphere. Curley also states that a nurse plays a role of a moral agent, as well as the cooperator of the patient’s family. As a consequence, in the particular care model a nurse provides a basis for the successful commitment of other health care professionals in addition to a positive atmosphere for a patient. Ultimately, the work of a nurse includes collaboration with other specialists of the medical sphere, as well as contributing to the overall desired patient outcome. Finally, it should be stated that the synergy model of patient care is utilized when the nurse’s skills are necessary in the particular case. Generally, this model implies all the basic nursing care competencies, knowledge, and the ability for patient-nurse cooperation.
The effectiveness of the care models has been proved by various scholastic studies. This fact signifies that these models are indicated as the relevant nursing care models. The general tendency shows that these models have been largely implemented in various nursing units. We can observe this process in the hospitals. However, the cooperation of different medical specialists is being encouraged with active involvement of nurses in all the aspects of treatment, including communication with doctors, patients, and families. Moreover, because the knowledge in the various medical spheres is highly appreciated today, it is important for a nurse to be able to outline the image of the situation.
Besides the analyzed care models, there is a set of other efficient nursing models. Thus, one of the alternatives to the models described above is the primary care team model. It focuses on the team approach encompassing nurse’s work as a differentiated unit. The team of specialists usually includes a registered nurse or a care manager, registered nurse provider, and clinical assistant. Moreover, the patient takes an active part in the treatment planning. This model implies the following peculiarities: a novice nurse being mentored by an experienced registered nurse, an experienced registered nurse being appointed to every patient, the high level of commitment of each team member, every member of a team working in accordance with their experience and skills, the decrease of work stress by distributing the work gradually, and a general focus on patient and staff safety, as well as staff satisfaction.
In conclusion, it should be stated that nursing care models are tasked with providing the most effective treatment for the patient by means of team work, cooperation and efficient usage of resources. The appropriateness of a particular care model is identified by the particular situation and the needs of a patient. There is a great range of various nursing care models. Some of them are considered to be innovative, while others prove to be outdated. The research provides the description and comparison of different kinds of nursing care models. All the three alternatives tend to be effective enough in different situations and settings. Nevertheless, the choice of a nursing care model depends on the competencies and skills of a nurse, as well as its relation to the required practice. Ultimately, all the models are aimed at both positive patient outcome, as well as staff job satisfaction.
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