Changes in America
How America Would Be Different If the First Gulf War Had Not Occurred or Existed
Studies reveal that about 697,000 United States veterans provided services in the Persian Gulf War. It has been found that at least 263,000 veterans have gone ahead to seek medical at the Veterans Affairs Department. It will be realized that over 185,000 people have really filed claims with the Administration for Veterans that extend to entail medical disabilities related to the services they provided. This service related disabilities also include psychological and physical distress that the war veterans underwent as they participated in the operation. Studies further reveal that the main odd consequence of the first Persian Gulf was war illness. This clearly shows that if the First Persian Gulf war did not occur the American Veterans would not suffered from this illness. The Gulf War Illness essentially refers to the combination of psychological and physical signs that most of the personnel in the military develop as an effect of participating in the Gulf War. There are the three distinct symptoms associated with this illness which extend to include fatigue, musculoskeletal, cognition and mood problems (Fulco, Liverman& Sox, 2000).The veterans usually feel depressed, moody and anxious and they have difficulties in sleeping, concentrating and remembering events. Others report musculoskeletal problems that include muscle pain, joint pains and stiffness. In general if the war did not occur, the Americans who participated in the operation would not suffer from physical and psychological distress.
It will be realized that the total costs that were incurred in stopping the war were high which clearly reflected that the American outlays surpassed the contributions received from foreign countries. This meant that a lot of funds were required to ensure that the war came to an end. In order to fund for the war, taxes and external borrowings slightly increased. Therefore the Americans were negatively affected as a result of increased tax rates being passed to them. Studies further disclose that the gulf operations led to loss of equipment which in turn increased the replacement costs in America.
The First Gulf War actually triggered the recession in America. It will be realized that before the invasion, the Federal Reserve Chairman, Alan Greenspan, had clearly explained the dangers of recession if the Americans were to participate in the war and said that the Fed was ready to give credits to ensure that the recession did not occur. Studies explain that, other American economists plainly held that before the crisis occurred, the Federal Reserve was too tight and was experiencing a weak economy. It will be realized that if the Gulf War did not occur, the looming recession and high inflation would not crop up in America. The First Gulf War led to increase in oil prices which in turn led to the increased inflation in the United States. The oil shock that occurred in 1990 clearly confirmed to be less severe as compared to the two oil shocks that had earlier occurred in 1970’s. The oil prices in America increased because both Kuwaiti and Iraqi supplies were lost as a result of the war invasion. This negatively affected many industries in the United States particularly the aircraft industry. The war led to a decrease in the revenues obtained from the airlines because the traffic fell drastically. This would not be case if the war did not occur, industries would generate more revenues especially the airlines where more flights would be directed to the Persian Gulf (Mueller, 1994).
How America Would Be Different If the Iran-Contra Affair Had Not Occurred or Existed
During 1985, Iraq and Iran were at war and as a result Iran went ahead to make a secret request to purchase weapons from America (Tarock, 1998). Despite the fact that there was an embargo set on the sell of weapons to Iran, McFarlane proceeded to seek for Reagan’s approval. McFarlane clearly explained to Reagan that the sale of weapons was highly meant to improve the relations between the Iran and United States. He further revealed that the sale of arms would also improve the relations between America and Lebanon which in turn would increase the influence of the United States in the Middle East which was characterized by frequent troubles. This meant Reagan to be driven by unusual obsession. It will be realized that he had been frustrated by being unable to secure the discharge of some seven American hostages who were strictly held in Lebanon by the Iranian terrorists. This meant Reagan to feel that he had the duty to bring the seven Americans back home. In reality, shipping the weapons to Iran clearly violated the embargo that was earlier on set and also dealing with the terrorists further desecrated the promises he made during his campaign. It will be realized that the Iran-Contra Affair fully divided the administration. George Shultz who was the secretary of state and Caspar Weinberger who on the other hand was the secretary of defense had long served as policy adversaries opposed the deal. McFarlane, Reagan and William Casey who was the CIA director fully supported the deal. As a result of the arms-for-hostages proposal only three hostages were released and three new hostages were held by the terrorists. Reagan later denied that the deal was not meant to release the American hostages (Freedman, 1998).
If the Iran-Contra Affair did not occur the America’s faith in power would not have been destroyed. It made the congress to tirelessly work towards restoring its dignity and then that of the democratic institution. Studies further reveal that the affair deteriorated the relations that prevailed between American and both Lebanon and Iran. It is also good note that if the deal did not occur the United States export laws regarding sale of arms would not have been violated and more hostages would not have been held by the terrorists. In addition, the relations between the America and the terrorists would not have swelled up. In conclusion, the Iran-Contra Affair broke the law and the image of Reagan suffered that meant his popularity to rebound. As he left office in 1989 he had the highest president approval rating ever since Franklin Roosevelt.